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人感染猪流感知识问答
(2009-09-01)
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人感染猪流感知识问答(供参考)(中英文版本)

1、  什么是猪流感。

猪流感是由猪流感病毒引起的一种急性呼吸道传染病,但极少传染给人。本次疫情患者感染的是一种H1N1亚型猪流感病毒新毒株。这种病毒已被证实经由人际传播,

2、人感染猪流感病毒的症状和体征是什么?

人感染猪流感病毒的症状与人流感的症状十分相似,包括发热、咳嗽、咽痛、头痛、全身痛、寒颤和疲劳等。另据报道,有的人也会有腹泻和呕吐的症状。严重者可以出现肺炎、呼吸衰竭和甚至死亡。

3、人如何感染猪流感:

两种途径证实可以传播猪流感病毒

1、    与病猪密切接触或者是环境被猪流感病毒污染。

2、    与感染猪流感病毒的人密切接触,人际间传播已被证实,主要是经感染人的咳嗽和喷嚏等飞沫传播。

4、有药物可以治疗吗?

美国CDC建议用抗病毒药物奥塞米韦和扎那米韦来治疗或者预防猪流感病毒感染。主要是通过防止病毒在体内复制来预防的。得病以后,也可以减轻症状,加速康复。在出现症状两天内使用抗病毒药物效果最佳。

5、感染病毒后多长时间具有传染性?

感染者出现症状后具有传染性,一般维持7天左右,儿童可以更长一些。

6、如何做好防护:

 目前没有猪流感疫苗可以应用于人类。日常防护可以防止疾病传播,如:

1、  当你咳嗽或者打喷嚏时用手帕和卫生纸等进行遮挡,并妥善处理废弃物。

2、  勤用肥皂洗手,特别是咳嗽或者打喷嚏后。酒精洗手的效果比较好。

3、  避免接触病人。

4、  感染后,呆在家中,避免到单位、学校等地,避免与他人接触。

7、可以通过吃猪肉感染吗?

不能,猪流感不能通过食物传播,人不能通过吃猪肉或其产品而感染。经过正确处理和加工的猪肉产品是安全的。

 

摘自美国CDC

Swine Influenza and You

What is swine flu?

Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses. Outbreaks of swine flu happen regularly in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Most commonly, human cases of swine flu happen in people who are around pigs but it’s possible for swine flu viruses to spread from person to person also.

Are there human infections with swine flu in the U.S.?

In late March and early April 2009, cases of human infection with swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses were first reported in
Southern California and near San Antonio, Texas. CDC and local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation.

Is this swine flu virus contagious?

CDC has determined that this virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human. However, at this time, it not known how easily the virus spreads between people.

What are the signs and symptoms of swine flu in people?

The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting associated with swine flu. In the past, severe illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths have been reported with swine flu infection in people. Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.

How serious is swine flu infection?

Like seasonal flu, swine flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Between 2005 until January 2009, 12 human cases of swine flu were detected in the
U.S. with no deaths occurring. However, swine flu infection can be serious. In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman in Wisconsin was hospitalized for pneumonia after being infected with swine flu and died 8 days later. A swine flu outbreak in Fort Dix, New Jersey occurred in 1976 that caused more than 200 cases with serious illness in several people and one death.

How do you catch swine flu?

Spread of swine flu can occur in two ways:

·     Through contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine flu viruses.

·     Through contact with a person with swine flu. Human-to-human spread of swine flu has been documented also and is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu. Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.

Are there medicines to treat swine flu?

Yes. CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with these swine influenza viruses. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaler) that fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can make your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms).

How long can an infected person spread swine flu to others?

People with swine influenza virus infection should be considered potentially contagious as long as they are symptomatic and possible for up to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods.

What can I do to protect myself from getting sick?

There is no vaccine available right now to protect against swine flu. There are everyday actions that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza. Take these everyday steps to protect your health:

·     Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.

·     Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are

also effective.

·     Try to avoid close contact with sick people.

·     If you get sick with influenza, CDC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread

this way.

What should I do if I get sick?

If you live in
San DiegoCounty or Imperial County California or Guadalupe County, Texas and become ill with influenza-like symptoms, including fever, body aches, runny nose, sore throat, nausea, or vomiting or diarrhea, you may want to contact their health care provider, particularly if you are worried about your symptoms. Your health care provider will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed.

If you are sick, you should stay home and avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from spreading your illness to others.

If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care.

In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:

·     Fast breathing or trouble breathing

·     Bluish skin color

·     Not drinking enough fluids

·     Not waking up or not interacting

·     Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held

·     Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough

·     Fever with a rash

In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:

·     Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

·     Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen

·     Sudden dizziness

·     Confusion

·     Severe or persistent vomiting

Can I get swine influenza from eating or preparing pork?

No. Swine influenza viruses are not spread by food. You cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe.

 

 
 
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